​Following are descriptions of situational awareness and debriefing—two key focus areas of Crew Resource Management (CRM).

SA is a common aviation term that refers to the ability to make an accurate assessment of the “big picture” view of what is happening. A low SA can result in errors. Following is a list of SA red flags that could indicate or cause low SA:

1. Reduced or poor communication
2. Confusion
3. Lack of focus by team
4. Being rushed/behind schedule
5. Trying something new under pressure
6. Deviating from established norms
7. Task saturation
8. Personal issues—lack of sleep
9. Fear of perceived “superiors”

Debriefing is a process used to learn from an error that has occurred. The questions listed below are designed to induce conversation and produce ideas so that similar errors can be prevented in the future. This process should be conducted as a team, with every member participating in discussion:

1. What did we do well?
2. What did we miss?
3. What did we learn?
4. What would we do differently next time?